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    Québec had a record-high net migration gain of 217,600 people in 2023

    Québec, March 27, 2024. – Québec’s population reached 8.98 million on January 1, 2024 after increasing by 218,000 in 2023. This increase came almost exclusively from international migration, mainly temporary immigration (+174,200), which was more than three times higher than permanent immigration (+52,800). Natural increase—births minus deaths—was very small (+400) in 2023, as births (77,950) barely exceeded deaths (77,550). The net total population increase in 2023 was the highest ever recorded, surpassing the previous record set in 2022 (+153,000).

    Components of population growth, Québec, 2023p

    Population and migrations: Statistics Canada, Demographic Estimates (March 2024). Adapted by the Institut de la statistique du Québec.
    Births and deaths: Institut de la statistique du Québec.

    Record number of temporary immigrants

    In addition to 52,800 permanent immigrants, a record 174,200 temporary immigrants were added to Québec’s population in 2023. The total number of temporary immigrants—also called “non-permanent residents”—reached 560,000 by the end of 2023. This group comprises 234,000 temporary foreign workers, 177,000 asylum claimants, and 124,000 international students, some of whom have a work permit. Based on administrative data from Immigration, Refugees and Citizenship Canada, Statistics Canada estimates that Québec had 19% of Canada’s temporary foreign workers, 54% of asylum claimants, and 12% of international students on January 1, 2024.

    When net emigration to other countries is included (-5,200), Québec’s net international migration increase stands at 221,800 for 2023.

    Interprovincial migration losses totalled 4,200, a level similar to previous years.

    Overall, these migration exchanges led to a total net migration increase of 217,600, breaking the previous record set in 2022 (+150,700).

    Number of births continues to decline while deaths remain high

    A total of 77,950 births were recorded in Québec in 2023, the lowest number since 2005. This general downward trend began in 2013 and is also being observed internationally and elsewhere in Canada. Deaths were estimated at 77,550 in 2023. This number is slightly higher than expected, mainly because of the impact of respiratory viruses that was felt once again in the fall, but to a lesser extent than in 2022.

    Very high population growth, but lower than in Canada

    While Québec’s record population growth was one of the highest among developed countries, the rest of Canada had an even higher increase. The growth rate in Québec was 2.5% in 2023, compared to 3.4% for the rest of Canada. As a result, Québec’s demographic weight in Canada decreased again slightly, from 22.2% on January 1, 2023 to 22.0% on January 1, 2024.

    Population data and components of population growth are now available up to January 1, 2024 on the Institut de la statistique du Québec’s website in the sections “Population and age structure” and “International and interprovincial migration”.

    These demographic estimates are released ahead of the Bilan démographique du Québec, which will be published in May and will provide a full report on Québec’s demographic situation as well as more detailed analyses.

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    The Institut de la statistique du Québec produces, analyzes and disseminates official, objective and quality statistical information on various aspects of Québec society. It is responsible for conducting all statistical surveys of general interest. The relevance of its work makes it a strategic ally for decision makers and all those wishing to learn more about Québec.

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